Thursday, August 11, 2011

earleaf acacia - Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. ex Benth


Family : Mimosaceae


Common name :  
(Bengali) : akash mono
(English) : Australian wattle, coast wattle, Darwin black wattle, earleaf acacia, earpod black wattle, earpod wattle, Japanese acacia, nothern black wattle, Papua wattle, tan wattle, wattle
(Filipino) : auri
(Indonesian) : akasai, akasia, kasia, ki hia
(Malay) : akasia kuning, kasia
(Swahili) : mkesia
(Thai) : krathin-narong
(Vietnamese) : smach’té:hes


Description: 
Trees with a height of 30 m, a diameter of 50 cm. Bark gray or brown. Crescent shape with rounded leaves like 10-16 cm long and 1-3 cm wide, smooth leaf surface gray-green leaves with 3-4 longitudinal bone clearly. Perbungan axillary-shaped grains with a length of 70-10 cm are always in pairs, 5-8 mm long flower stalks, flower consists of five pieces of leaf crown measuring 1.7 to 2 mm, bisexual, small, golden and fragrant; shows large round-shaped petals 0.7 to 1 mm, stamens many, measuring 3 mm area would bear fruit diselaputi many hairs short and fine. Dried fruit, 6.5 cm long and 1 to 2.5 cm long, woody, brown, wavy edges, right at first but as people age will be irregular twisted spiral. Seeds oval to elliptical, measuring 4.6 mm long and 3-4 mm wide, shiny black, hard, long beans, yellow or red stems.
Distribution / dissemination: 
Acacia auriculiformis natural state can be found in Australia (Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, northern Northern Territory), the southeastern part of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Kai Islands). Acacia auriculiformis have been domesticated since 50 years ago, and is widespread in tropical Asia.
Place to grow: 
Acacia auriculiformis grown in lowland areas of temperate humid tropical to sub-humid, the land along the banks of the river, beach, plains that experience tides, salt water lakes near the coast, and plains are put under water. Each individual tree is widespread in the area of ​​grassland and swamp forests dominated by Melaleuca spp trees are high. This species can obviously be found from sea level to 400 m above sea level, and even to 1000 m above sea level (in Zimbabwe). Distribution has an average maximum temperature of 32-38 ° C and average minimum temperature of 12-20 ° C. The rainfall varies from 760 mm in the Northern Territory (Australia) and 2000 mm in Papua New Guinea, its distribution is influenced by the monsoon climate that may occur during the dry season of 6 months. In the area of ​​distribution are not experiencing the winter, but in some places with the intensity of light snow may still be tolerated. These plants can not grow in the shade. Tolerance of this species to the intensity of the wind speed is low due to their branches easily broken by exposure to strong winds.  

Exceptionally, Acacia auriculiformis has a wide tolerance for various soil conditions. Papua New Guinea, these plants grow well in acidic soil with good water and soil clay mud or stagnant for a while or a long period. Lands in the area of ​​natural distribution in Australia is on the sand, clay, black, alluvial soil derived from sandstone or laterite. pH of the soil is usually 4.5 to 6.5, but in the Northern Territory, this plant grows in sandy soil, which also has a pH of 8-9, on former mining land that has a pH of 3. This plant is very tolerant of soil with salts (salinity). In a trial in Thailand, this plant can still grow in saline soil conditions with a range of 0:15 to 7:25 salinity dS / m, in both dry and wet soil.
Propagation: 
Propagation by seeds Ki hia. The seeds are physiologically ready to plant showed no dormancy. However, in the first pragerminasi treatment for seeds that are grown, the seed dipping in hot water for 1-2 minutes and then soaked in cold water overnight or soaked in warm water for 24 hours. After treatment, the seeds germinate after 6 days later with the success rates typically up to 75%. Rhizobium inoculation or mikorhiza usually done when the seedlings-Seedlings ready for planting in the affected areas or disused mine. Propagation Ki hia can be done with cuttings.

Benefits of plant: 

Acacia auriculiformis is a material timber for firewood. These plants were planted to stabilize the soil is suitable because of the dense root system eroded and stick to the surface (superficial and densely matted roots). This species is widely used for replanting and rehabilitation of degraded land in Indonesia. Due to a high tolerance to poor soils, this species is also used for the reforestation areas, former mining tin and bauxite.

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